• Revision History

EN:US cultural exchange programme

From Historisches Lexikon Bayerns

Minister President Hans Ehard (CSU, 1887-1980, Minister President 1946-1954, 1960-1962; 2nd right) was accompanied by his first wife Annelore (1891-1957; right) on his four week study trip. The trip included, amongst other things, a visit to Hollywood, where he saw the production of the monumental film “Demetrius and the Gladiators”. Lead actor Victor Mature (1913-1999, orig. Victor Joseph Maturi; left) showed them the set and the 20th Century Fox production site. With them was German-American film composer Franz Waxman (1906-1967, orig. Franz Wachsmann; 2nd left). Waxman is one of the most important film composers of the first half of the 20th century. (Bayerisches Hauptstaatsarchiv [Bavarian Central State Archives], NL Ehard 808)

by Dorottya Ruisz

Some 14,000 people took part in the US cultural exchange programme between 1947 and the end of the 1950s. The programme was part of the so-called Reeducation and Reorientation of the West German population and served the so-called Containment policy. The participants were selected based on a careful procedure. Preference was given primarily to people who had a distinct potential to be a disseminator. Among them, a large number of top figures from business, politics and society can be found. School pupils and students also participated in the stays that often lasted multiple months, taking part in the so-called Teen-Age programme. Prominent participants from Bavaria included Franz Josef Strauß (CSU, 1915-1988), Baron Waldemar von Knoeringen (SPD, 1906-1971), Hildegard Hamm-Brücher (FDP, 1921-2016) and Maria Probst (CSU, 1902-1967).

In the context of the US-American re-education policy

When the US-American occupation forces arrived in Bavaria in 1945, they saw the containment of Nazi ideology as one of their most important tasks. The aim was to replace the National Socialist world-view with a firmly established democracy. This was considered an indispensable prerequisite for long-term international understanding. Democratisation was to be accomplished through an extensive re-education programme. It covered the revision of the education system and the new regulation of religious affairs, the transfer of the cultural and media policy into pluralism, the implementation of a film, women and youth programme, the establishment of America houses and an exchange of personnel at suitable hubs.

Initially, the re-education activities concentrated on the education system, mainly because the potential for influence was considered particularly high there. However, the prospects of success were limited for a number of reasons: a quick reopening of the schools was necessary to prevent the neglect of children and young people, so it was not possible to complete the replacement of all the staff and the textbooks. Additional challenges for the occupying forces were the rebuilding and equipping of school buildings, school meals and increased student numbers due to refugees and displaced persons.

Then Minister of the Interior Alfons Goppel (CSU, 1905-1991, Minister of the Interior 1958-1962) visited the United States from the 19 October to the 3 December 1959 as part of the “Cultural Exchange Project PA 59”. (Archiv für Christlich-Soziale Politik [Archives for Christian-Social Politics], NL Goppel 121)

Furthermore, the Military Government had to deal with strong resistance towards the school reform, which was fuelled by the re-established local Education Authority (Müller, 111–288). It was unsettled by the intended “external reform”, which included an alignment with the US-American school system and its purely horizontal structure. The background for the American efforts was provided by the so-called Zook Report (American Commission on Education, State of Education, 1946). It saw the Bavarian system, with its vertically separated school types after the four-year primary school period, as a breeding ground for elitist thinking, which had, amongst other things, paved the way to National Socialism.

However, the lack of progress and the memorandum from a university working group from Chicago (USA; Working Group for German Issues at the University of Chicago) led the US military government to abandon the planned structural school reform. From the beginning of the 1950s onwards, measures increasingly did not focus on the discussion of educational goals and content in schools anymore, but on extracurricular areas such as the construction of the America Houses and the organisation of a cultural exchange programme (Füssl, Kulturaustausch, 169-201).

Organisation by the military government

The move away from the external school reform manifested itself in the change of the Military Government's head of the education department, when Alonzo Grace (1896-1971, Head of the Education Department 1948-1949) took over the management of the "Education and Cultural Relations Division" (E&CR) in the summer of 1948. The cultural exchange programme had begun the year before and was further expanded at the beginning of the 1950s. The E&CR's own sub-division for cultural affairs ("Cultural Affairs Branch"; Heydenreuter, Office, 230), opened in 1948, also shows the great importance attached to this part of the re-education policy. The term "exchange" mainly referred to trips by specialists and executives to the USA, which were summarised under the title "German Experts to the United States". For example, participants from the education sector spent between one and three months in the United States. The Military Government provided the financial basis for the endeavour.

Implementation on site

The planning and implementation of the programme on site in the United States was the responsibility of the "sponsors", exchange supporters recruited from the relevant professional or trade associations (OMGUS 1.10.1948-31.12.1949, Mf. 1–9). This skilful bringing together of people in similar technical and professional positions was intended to ensure that the participants in the exchange programme were able to experience satisfying technical discussions, meaningful participation in conferences and the like.

Content design

The CSU politician and District Administrator for the Freising district, Philipp Held (CSU, 1911-1993, District Administrator 1945-1966, Member of the State Parliament 1954-1974) took part in a study trip to the United States from the 11 September to the 1 November 1956. Held documented his visit in numerous photographs. In this picture, he is seen inspecting a food factory together with other study trip participants (right of screen: Philipp Held). Next to political and social topics, economical issues were at the foreground of the study trips.

Lying within the framework of the re-education policy, the cultural exchange programme was subordinated to the goals of international understanding and democratisation. Getting to know the United States was supposed to contribute to developing tolerance on the path to the peaceful coexistence of nations. The US-Americans' democratic behaviour patterns were to be observed and appropriated. As many areas of public life as possible were to be supported, for example trade unions, women's organisations and political institutions (Latzin, Lernen [2005], 139–304). Special support was given to the education sector; people from this group made up about twelve percent of the participants in the exchange programme.

With the goal of changing the school system having receded into the background, the projects in the education sector concentrated on an “internal school reform” following the turnaround in policy under Alonzo Grace. For example, Bavarian participants, sitting in on classes, were to observe the use of objective test methods in mathematics and science lessons. By promoting impartiality and freedom from prejudice, the learning of this method was to be a model for peaceful problem-solving strategies in everyday life and a small step on the path to world peace. The "Curriculum and Curriculum Making" project aimed to promote curriculum revision through familiarisation with US-American curricula and how they are written. The aim was to modernise the Bavarian timetables and curricula and to focus on relevance to life. The "Study of Social Studies Teaching in the U.S." project took the concept of civic education into consideration; the aim was to impart how democratic action could be learned on three levels: in a class-transcending school community, through teaching methods that allow for pluralism, and in a separate subject, social studies.

Selection of participants

Franz Josef Strauß (CSU, 1915-1988, Federal Minister of Defence 1956-1962) took part in a second study trip to the United States in 1956. Here he is seen on the US-American Airplane Carrier USS Randolph (CVA-15) with other study trip participants and US officers. From left to right: NN, Max-Eckart Wolff (1902-1988, Head of Staff of the Naval Command 1956-1957), Karl-Adolf Zenker (1907-1998, Head of the Sub-Department for Leadership and Unit Training in the Navy High Command 1956-1957), Hellmuth Heye (CDU, 1895-1970, Member of the State Parliament 1953-1961), NN, Franz Josef Strauß. Photo: 8 September 1956. (Archiv für Christlich-Soziale Politik, NL Strauß Slg Kray 35-5 001)

The number of participants in the exchanges was limited; on average, only four people were selected for each project. Therefore, it is understandable that the selection was made very carefully, not least out of consideration for the American taxpayer and the high organisational workload involved in the exchange. In addition to political reliability, the overriding criterion was the candidate's potential role as a disseminator. They had to demonstrate that they had the ability, the professional network and the competence to disseminate the knowledge and skills acquired in the USA in Bavaria.

The curriculum project can be used as an example to illustrate the primacy of the dissemination potential. Selected candidates had already made a name for themselves in curriculum development and held positions that allowed them to gain experience abroad. Thus, from Bavaria, Countess Silvia von Brockdorff (1908–2003), who worked in an advisory capacity for the Office of Military Government for Bavaria (OMGB), and Paul Wilpert (1906–1967), who held a professorship for philosophy and education in Passau, took part in 1949. Both of these were later involved in advising on the "Foundation for the Reconstruction of the Bavarian Education and Schooling System" (so-called Wallenburg Foundation). The foundation was established on 5 April 1948 by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs and was named after Schloss Wallenburg (Miesbach district), its first meeting site (from 1 December 1948 on the meeting venue was Kempfenhausen [Starnberg district]). In the Wallenburg Foundation, a group of experts dealt with various issues regarding the Bavarian education system, such as the highest educational goals and the content of teacher training. Participants returning from the United States were systematically supervised to guarantee the transfer of professional knowledge and the dissemination of democratic behaviour (Latzin, Lernen [2005], 304-321).

However, factors of a completely different nature were also relevant: married applicants were preferred as it was assumed that they would actually return to Bavaria. English skills also played a role as a prerequisite for successful communication in the target country. Professional experience and therefore the age of the candidates was also important. During the planning phase pre-1948, it had looked as if cultural exchange would be open primarily to the younger generation. The age group of 16 to 19-year-olds finally got their money's worth in the smaller “Teen-Age programme” (Pilgert, Exchange, 60–62; Puaca, Missionaries). However, right after the start of the exchange programme, the majority of the participants were managers.

Importance of the programme

August Fischer (1901-1986, Mayor of Kempten 1952-1970) gifts a roman amphora, found at an excavation site in Kempten, to representatives of the city of Kenosha (Wisconsin, USA). Fischer was the head of an eight-person group from Kempten, which partook in a two-month study trip to the United States. Subject of the visit was the administrative system of American cities. Photograph from 4 October 1954. (Stadtarchiv Kempten [City Archives Kempten])

The cultural exchange with its peak between 1949 and 1953 falls into a period of increasing partnership between Germany and the USA and can be seen as part of the so-called Containment policy, in which the USA wanted to prevent or contain the spread of communism using political means. The measures were part of the "Reeducation Programme", although considering the lack of directive actions the term "reorientation" is more relevant to what actually happened.

Between its beginning and end in the 1950s, 14,000 people completed the exchange programme, including the 2,000 participants who visited Western European countries. The "Teen-Age programme" accounted for around 2,300 one-year stays in the first half of the 1950s. The exchange was seen as the heart of the reorientation. The Governor of the Office of Military Government for Germany (OMGUS) Lucius D. Clay (1898–1978, Military Governor 1947–1949) described it as the "foundation upon which our reorientation program was built" (Clay, Decision in Germany, 301).

The skilful placement of the returning top executives on the committees of post-war Bavaria that matched their experience abroad is evidence of the programs potential reach. In the end though, it is not possible to clearly determine which democratic elements can actually be traced back to the exchange (for the public's reactions to the exchange, see Latzin, Lernen [2005], 321-326). The success of the programme for the younger generation can probably be regarded as moderate, since the United States was extremely attractive to young people, which made it difficult for them to reintegrate in Bavaria.

The unilateral nature of the exchange, which was also intended to promote the USA, is worthy of criticism. For this reason, historical research has already suggested the term “visit programme” to replace the concept of exchange (Kreis; Latzin). In fact, just 2,000 Americans came to Germany as part of the cultural exchange. In terms of content, it was completely characterized by one-sidedness – from the very beginning, there was the implication that the only thing that needed to be improved was the way of life in Germany. The most extensive bilateralism could be observed in teacher exchanges, although this included just a few participants. Cultural exchange became more reciprocal after its assignment to the US State Department from 1951, when the "Fulbright Programme" was also opened up to Germany. The programme initiated by James William Fulbright (1905–1995) in 1946 supports academic exchange from and with the USA (as of 2019: over 160 partner countries and over 390,000 participants since 1946).

A summary assessment of the impact of cultural exchange is difficult to make simply because of the heterogeneous nature of the participants. Its contribution to the success story of the country's democratisation cannot be quantified; historical research sometimes estimates the impact of these measures as small compared to the influence of the improved economic conditions. It is documented that the Bavarian graduates were impressed above all by the prosperity and progressiveness of the host country, but were critical of the school system, for example. However, the cultural exchange programme, the largest in history, definitely made a certain contribution to democratisation on its way to becoming firmly anchored in the Western world.

Überblick über einige Teilnehmer, die Themen der Studienreisen, die Reisedauer und die Stationen der Reise
Name Biographical data Role at the
time of the
study trip
Study trip subject Study trip length Stops on the
study trip
Adam, Robert born 1894 Head of Section and Deputy Secretary of State for Refugees Refugee support and assimilation 1950/51, four months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 337.
Albrecht, Lisa 1896-1958 Deputy State Chairman of the SPD (1947-1949), Chair of the SPD Women's Committee (1947-1958) Women in politics 18 February bis 28 April 1949 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 276.
Anderl, Ludwig 1909-1967 Chaplain in Trostberg Labour and social affairs 1949/50 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 338.
Anhegger, Friederike 1921-2009 City councillor in Kempten (CSU, 1972-1990) 1954, two months (15.9.-19.11.1954) New York City, Washington D.C., Niagara Falls (New York), Chicago (Illinois), Kenosha (Wisconsin), Denver (Colorado), Rocky Mountains, Milwaukee (Wisconsin), Salt Lake City (Utah), San Francisco (Kalifornien), Los Angeles (California), Grand Canyon (Arizona), New Orleans (Louisiana) Latzin (2005), Lernen, 339. Stadtarchiv Kempten.
Baer, Fritz 1901-1993 Head of Department, Head of the State Chancellery (1957-1960) Politics and administration 1957, six weeks Latzin (2005), Lernen, 340.
Baeyer, Wanda von Head of the Franconian Women's Association, Head of the Federal Committee for Citizenship Cooperation in the Deutscher Frauenring women's organisation, wife of the psychiatrist Walter von Baeyer Women's organisation and political associations Latzin (2005), Lernen, 276.
Bamberger, Elisabeth 1890-1984 Head of the Munich City Youth Welfare Office (1950-1955) Welfare facilities for mother and child 1951 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 340.
Baudrexel, Josef Managing Director of the National Association for Free Adult Education Adult education 1953 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 163.
Birnbaum, Immanuel 1894-1982 Head of the Foreign Policy Department at the SZ newspaper (1953-1972) Press 1955, six weeks Latzin (2005), Lernen, 343.
Böhm, Wilhelmine Advisor for girls' education in the State Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141.
Bosl, Karl 1908-1993 1st Chairman of the Bavarian Philologists' Association (1949-1954), Wallenburg Foundation liaison to the Ministry of Cultural Affairs (1951/52) Teacher training and teacher associations 1951/52 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 154, 344.
Brauer, Heinz 1909-2000 Deputy Member of the Board of Management at Renk AG (1949-1956) Labour relations 1950 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 345.
Braun, Hanns Maria 1893-1966 Honorary professor for theatre criticism (1949), theatre critic Theatre criticism 1949 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 345.
Brenner, Eduard 1888-1970 City Councillor (SPD) in Nuremberg (1946-1950), Chairman of the State Association for Free Adult Education (1946-1949) Law and political science in higher education 1949, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 144.
Brockdorff, Silvia Gräfin von born 1908 Advisor on educational issues to the US military government (1948) Curriculum design 1949, three months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 152.
Domcke, Hans 1923-2010 Occupation in Bavarian justice (since 1949) Politics 1956 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 350.
Ebert, Wilhelm 1923-2017 Chairman of the Working Group of Bavarian Young Teachers (1948-1952) Teacher training and teacher associations 1949, 1951/52 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 153, 154, 352.
Ehard, Hans 1887-1980 Minister President (1946-1954), Chairman of the CSU (1949-1955) Politics 1953, four weeks Chicago (Illinois), Hollywood (California), among others Latzin (2005), Lernen, 276, 353. SZ, 21.7.1953, 10.
Erhard, Ludwig 1897-1977 Director of the Economic Administration of the VWG (1948-1949), Federal Minister of Economic Affairs (1949-1963) Politics 1949, three weeks Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 353.
Feilner, Hildegund born 1918 Consultant in the Ministry of Economic Affairs (1948-1952) Women's organisations and business 1950, seven months (March to September) New York City, Washington D.C., New Orleans (Louisiana), Monroe (Lousiana), Chicago (Illinois), Minneapolis (Minnesota), Detroit (Michigan), Hartfort (Connecticut), Salt Lake City (Utah), San Francisco (California), Los Angeles (California), Denver (Colorado) Latzin (2005), Lernen, 282, 355.
Fendt, Franz 1892–1982 Rector of the University of Political Sciences (HfP) Munich (1950-1954) Law and political science in higher education 1949, three months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 355.
Feury, Otto Freiherr von 1906-1998 Deputy Chairman of the BBV Oberbayern (1949-1955) Agricultural organisations 1949, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 356.
Fingerle, Anton 1912-1976 Munich City School Board (1945-1976) Education 1948 (September to November) New York City, Albany (New York), Hartfort (Connecticut), Buffalo (New York), Detroit (Michigan), Battle Creek (Michigan), Lansing (Michigan), Chicago (Illinois), Schenectady, Baltimore (Maryland), Washington D.C., among others Latzin (2005), Lernen, 154, 356.
Fischer, August 1901-1986 Mayor of Kempten (1952-1970), President of the "Verband der Heimkehrer, Kriegsgefangenen und Vermisstenangehörigen" (1951-1961) 1954, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 357.
Gebel, Christa born 1924 Women's secretary in the Bavarian Federation of Trade Unions Women in trade unions and working life 1949, three months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 280, 360.
Glum, Friedrich 1891-1974 Head of Section in the State Chancellery (1946-1952) Law and political science in higher education 1949, three months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 142, 361.
Goppel, Alfons 1905-1991 Minister of the Interior (1958-1962) Politics 1959, six weeks (19.10. bis 3.12.1959) Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 362. ACSP, NL Goppel 121.
Guttenberg, Elisabeth Freifrau zu 1900-1998 Regional Chairwoman of the Catholic Women's Aid Layperson participation in Catholic Action 1950 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 364.
Hagen, Lorenz 1885-1965 President of the Bavarian Federation of Trade Unions (1947-1949), Chairman of the Federation of German Trade Unions for the region Bavaria (1949-1955), Member of the State Parliament (SPD, 1946-1954) Trade union organisations in the USA 1949, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 365.
Hamm-Brücher, Hildegard 1921-2016 City councillor in Munich (FDP, 1948-1954) Political and Social Science Program 1949/50, one year Latzin (2005), Lernen, 365.
Haushofer, Heinz 1906-1988 Director of the State Committee for Agricultural Advice and Training in the Ministry of Agriculture (1949-1951) Agricultural advisory service 1949, two months Washington D.C., various towns in the states of West Virginia and Pennsylvania, amongst others Latzin (2005), Lernen, 270, 367.
Held, Philipp 1911-1993 District Administrator of Freising (1945-1966), Member of the State Parliament (CSU, 1954-1974) 1956 (17 September to 1 November) New York City, Washington D.C., Boston (Massachusetts), Williamsport (Pennsylvania), Buffalo (‎New York), Niagara Falls (New York), Chicago (Michigan), Denver (Colorado), Williams (Arizona), Los Angeles (California), San Francisco (California), Salt Lake City (Utah), Dallas (Texas), New Orleans (Louisiana), Sidney (Nebraska) ACSP, NL Held 14.
Hilgard, Hanns born 1911 Employee in the Higher Education Department at the Ministry of Cultural Affairs (1946-1952) Public administration 1949, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141, 371.
Hörburger, Frieda Head of the Kindergarten Department at LMU 1950, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141, 372.
Hundhammer, Alois 1900–1974 Minister of Cultural Affairs 1946-1950, Member of the State Parliament (CSU, 1946-1970) Education in the USA 1950 (17 May to 26 May) Washington D.C., Chicago (Michigan), New York City, various towns in the states of Virginia, Maryland, among others Latzin (2005), Lernen, 157-158. SZ, 26.5.1950, 22.5.1950, 31.5.1950.
Ilk, Hertha 1902-1972 Member of Parliament (FDP, 1949-1957) Women in politics 1951, three months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 276, 373.
Knoeringen, Waldemar Freiherr von 1906-1971 Member of the State Parliament (SPD, 1946-1970), Regional Chairman of the SPD (1947-1963) Politics 1949 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 379.
Laufer, Gerda 1910-1999 City councillor in Würzburg (1946-1956), Member of the State Parliament (SPD, 1954-1974) Politics and society 1954 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 276, 383.
Lippl, Alois Johannes 1903–1957 Director of the Bavarian State Theatre (1948-1953) Theatre management 1949/50 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 386.
Maly, Josef 1898-1961 Director of the State Institute for Crippled Children Teaching training for special education schools 1949, three months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141, 387.
Meinzolt, Hans 1887-1967 State Councillor in the Ministry of Cultural Affairs (1946-1954) Education 1952, one month Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141, 389.
Neff, Richard born 1892 Chairman of the Bavarian Association of Administrative Districts (1948-1952) Local government 1951 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 393.
Probst, Maria 1902-1967 Member of the State Parliament (CSU, 1946-1949), Member of Parliament (1949-1967) Women in politics 1949, three months New York City, Syracuse (New York), Indianapolis (Indiana), Bloomington (Indiana), Hartford (Connecticut), Riverdale (Connecticut), Salem (Massachusetts), Glastonbury (Connecticut), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Latzin (2005), Lernen, 276, 399.
Rucker, August 1900-1978 Rector of the Technical University of Munich (1951-1954) Education 1954, ten weeks Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141, 403.
Schaller, Jutta 1909-1983 Ministry of Economic Affairs (since 1950) Women's organisations 1951 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 277, 404.
Schilling, Josef 1892–1957 Member of the Senate (1947–1957), Director of the Munich Employment Office (since 1951) Trade unions and the public sector 1949, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 406.
Seeling, Otto 1891–1955 CSU, entrepreneur, President of the Bavarian Industry Association (1949-1955) 1951 (8 November to 5 December) New York City, Washington D.C., Buffalo (New York), Toledo (Ohio), Niagara Falls (New York), Detroit (Michigan), Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Greenfield-Village (Michigan), Corning (New York), among others Latzin (2005), Lernen, 111-112, ACSP, NL Seeling
Seidel, Hanns 1901-1961 Member of the State Parliament (CSU, 1946-1961), Chairman of the CSU (1955-1961) Politics 1956, six weeks Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 412.
Spindler, Sofie 1904-1997 Director of the Regional School for the Blind Munich (1947-1969) Teacher training for schools for the blind 1949 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141, 415.
Strauß, Franz Josef 1915-1988 Member of Parliament (CSU, 1949-1978) Legislative prerogatives and responsibilities 1953, one month Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 418.
Thieme, Willy 1912-1979 Member of State Parliament (SPD, 1950–1958) Legislative prerogatives and responsibilities 1951, three months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 420.
Wilpert, Paul 1906-1967 President of the Bavarian State Association for Free Adult Education (1949-1955) Education and adult education 1949, two months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 163, 426.
Wimmer, Thomas 1887-1964 Lord Mayor of Munich (SPD, 1948-1960), Member of the State Parliament (SPD, 1946-1958) Politics 1954 Latzin (2005), Lernen, 133, 427.
Zorell, Elisabeth 1896-1993 Head of the Kindergarten Teachers' Department at the Social Women's School Munich (1944-1961) Kindergarten teacher training 1949, four months Latzin (2005), Lernen, 141, 430.

Note: The table contains a selection of the diverse participants. The organisers of the trip and the respective stops are not generally known in all cases.

US exchange programme: Number of participants 1947-1954
Participants‘ professional fields US-Americans
to the USA
Educational issues *390 *1.567
Youth issues 112 736
Religious affairs 54 305
Women’s issues 32 319
Health and social services 16 306
Libraries and museums 17 119
Law 28 358
Politics 86 965
Trade unions 39 884
Press and information services 69 563
Agriculture 49 359
Students *399 *1.823
Pupils - 2.227
Miscellaneous 64 385
Total *1.355 *10.916

Note: The figures marked with * also include participants in the Fulbright Programme. Source: ACSP, NL Philipp Held.


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Further Research

Related Articles


Dorottya Ruisz, US cultural exchange programme, first published on 09 December 2019, English version published 08 April 2024; in: Historisches Lexikon Bayerns, URL: <http://www.historisches-lexikon-bayerns.de/Lexikon/EN:US_cultural_exchange_programme> (26.05.2024)